How Long Is Residency? What You Need To Know

April 15, 2024
12 min read


Reviewed by:

Luke Hartstein

Former Admissions Committee Member, NYU Grossman School of Medicine

Reviewed: 10/16/23

How long is residency? Read on to find your answers.

Medical schools can be academically rigorous and emotionally challenging. As students immerse themselves in hands-on clinical training, collaborative learning, and research endeavors, they lay the foundation for their future careers in medicine. 

However, the journey doesn't end with medical school graduation; instead, it leads to a new phase eagerly anticipated by aspiring physicians—the residency years. Residency programs offer a dynamic mix of challenges and opportunities, shaping the skills, expertise, and career paths of aspiring doctors. 

In this comprehensive guide, we'll explore the lengths of medical residencies, understand their importance, examine the variations based on specialty, and offer valuable tips to help you craft a successful residency application. Let’s get started!

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Why Is Residency Necessary?

Before we answer the question, “how long is medical residency?” Let's discuss its importance. Residency serves several crucial purposes, making it an essential step in a physician's career. We’ll outline a few of them below: 

Medical Licensure

Firstly, it is a mandatory requirement for obtaining a medical license in most countries, including the United States. This licensure ensures that healthcare providers meet specific standards of competence and knowledge, which are fundamental for practicing medicine independently.

Specialized Training

Residency programs offer specialized training in various medical fields. During this period, doctors receive focused instruction and hands-on experience within their chosen specialty. Whether it's surgery, internal medicine, pediatrics, or psychiatry, this specialized training is pivotal for becoming an expert in a specific area of medicine.

Balancing Theory and Practice

Residency uniquely combines practical, hands-on training with structured classroom learning. This dual approach allows medical residents to develop both practical clinical skills and theoretical knowledge, effectively preparing them for the complexities of real-world medical practice.

Roles and Responsibilities

Resident doctors also take on significant roles in healthcare settings, albeit under supervision. These roles may vary depending on the residency stage, specialty, and the specific healthcare institution where they work. Their responsibilities typically include:

  • Patient Care: Resident doctors diagnose medical conditions, create treatment plans, and monitor patients' progress.
  • Clinical Rounds: They actively participate in rounds with medical teams to discuss patient cases and treatment plans.
  • Procedures: Depending on their specialty, residents perform surgeries, injections, and other medical interventions.
  • Documentation: They maintain detailed patient records, including medical histories, treatment plans, and progress notes.
  • Emergency Care: In hospitals, resident doctors are often responsible for responding to emergencies and making quick medical decisions.
  • Consultations: They coordinate patient care with other healthcare professionals, specialists, and nurses.
  • Continuing Education: Residents stay updated with medical knowledge through lectures, conferences, and research.

These responsibilities contribute substantially to their growth as competent medical practitioners.

Path to Board Certification

Completing residency opens the door to pursuing board certification within a chosen specialty. Board certification is a recognized marker of expertise and competence in a specific medical field, enhancing a doctor's professional credentials.

Direct Patient Care

Lastly, residency programs provide a unique opportunity for doctors to engage directly in patient care. This hands-on involvement is invaluable for developing clinical skills, gaining a deep understanding of medical conditions, and ultimately contributing to the quality of healthcare provided to patients.

How Long Is Medical Residency?

Medical residency lasts between three to seven years, depending on your specialty. All medical students begin residency after four years of medical school. 

The first year of residency is similar in most hospitals. It is the intern year, during which you will gain experience working in multiple specialties. Exposure to different departments guides you into your specialization choice in the later years of your residency.

After the intern year, some specialties have relatively short residencies. Internal medicine runs for three years, while others, like surgery or neurosurgery, can extend to seven or more years. The length of residency depends on several factors, which will be discussed later in the article. 

Residency Lengths: Why Is It Important?

The length of medical residencies is a crucial aspect of a physician's training and career for various important reasons. Why are some residencies shorter than others?

Accreditation Standards

Residency programs must meet accreditation standards set by medical organizations and governing bodies. These standards may include minimum training durations, which can vary by specialty. 

Accreditation bodies, such as the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), define the educational standards that residency programs must adhere to. 

These standards encompass not only the curriculum but also the duration of training. Accreditation standards play a vital role in confirming residents' competence as medical professionals by providing them with a robust foundation of knowledge and skills.


A physician's specialization in the medical field determines the length of the residency. The length of residency training ensures that medical professionals receive in-depth, specialized knowledge and hands-on experience in their chosen field. 

Specializations such as neurosurgery or cardiology require longer residencies because of the intricate nature of the procedures and the need for comprehensive understanding and skill development.

Moreover, the length of residency impacts patient safety. In specialties like anesthesiology or radiology, where precision and accuracy are paramount, longer residency periods allow physicians to hone their skills, reducing the risk of errors during procedures.

Shorter Residencies Allow for Quicker Access to Care

It's widely known that shorter residencies in certain specialties could lead to doctors entering practice sooner. If they do, it would reduce shortages of healthcare providers in underserved areas. 

Shorter residencies may be a way to increase the number of doctors available to provide care more quickly. In contrast, longer residencies may extend training periods, which delay doctors from fully practicing in their chosen fields. 


Some critics argue that longer residencies provide more time for residents to gain expertise and become competent in their specialty. This is particularly critical in complex surgical specialties and subspecialties. 

Of truth, residency programs with longer durations can provide more comprehensive training experiences, including exposure to a broader range of patient cases and research opportunities. However, shorter residencies combined with ongoing professional development can be an adequate alternative.

Training Goals

The complexity of the specialty can impact the length of residency. Highly specialized fields, like interventional radiology or pediatric neurology, often have longer training periods due to the extensive expertise needed.

Some doctors decide to pursue a medical fellowship after completing their residency to gain additional expertise in a subspecialty, which can extend the overall training period.


Some specialties are highly competitive, and matching into them can be more challenging. This can result in residents completing preliminary years before securing a spot in their desired specialty, which may extend their overall training duration.

It's important to note that the specific duration of residency programs can change over time due to evolving medical practices and educational standards. Aspiring residents should consult with program directors and relevant medical authorities to stay informed about the latest requirements for their chosen specialty and location.

Career Opportunities

The length of residency can impact a doctor's career choices. Some doctors may choose shorter residencies to enter practice sooner, while others may opt for longer residencies to pursue highly specialized fields or academic careers. 

By recognizing the factors influencing these lengths and being prepared for potential adaptations, individuals can navigate the complexities of medical residencies effectively and make informed decisions about their careers.

Specialty-Specific Medical Residency Length

Residency lengths can vary considerably depending on the medical specialty you pursue. In this section, we will explore medical residency lengths by specialty


The general length for neurosurgery residency is seven years, making it one of the most extended training periods for medical specialists. This extended duration is necessary due to the complexity and intricacy of neurosurgical procedures. 

Neurosurgeons specialize in diagnosing and treating disorders of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, often requiring extensive surgical interventions. 

The extended training allows residents to develop a deep understanding of neurological conditions, gain expertise in complex surgical techniques, and build proficiency in managing critically ill patients. 

Neurosurgery residents undergo rigorous training that includes a mix of clinical rotations, research, and surgical experience, ensuring they are well-prepared to provide specialized and comprehensive care to patients with neurological disorders.


Psychiatry residency typically spans four years, making it a shorter training period compared to some other medical specialties. During these four years, aspiring psychiatrists receive comprehensive training in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of various mental health conditions. 

The relatively shorter duration allows psychiatry residents to focus on gaining expertise in understanding and addressing the complex interplay of psychological and emotional factors that affect mental well-being. 

This specialization equips them to provide essential mental health services to their patients, ranging from therapy and counseling to medication management, and prepares them to contribute significantly to the field of mental healthcare.


Neurology residency programs typically span four years, providing aspiring neurologists with an intensive and focused training experience. 

During this time, residents delve deep into the study of the nervous system, honing their skills in diagnosing and treating a wide range of neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and more. 

This specialization prepares them to provide crucial neurological care to their patients and to contribute to ongoing advancements in the field of neurology through research and clinical practice.


Anesthesiology residencies typically last for four years after completing medical school. This duration allows residents to acquire comprehensive knowledge and practical experience in administering anesthesia, managing pain, and ensuring patient safety during surgical procedures. 

Anesthesiologists play a critical role in the operating room, and their training is designed to equip them with the skills needed to handle various surgical scenarios and medical conditions. 


Dermatology residencies typically last for three years after medical school. While shorter in duration compared to some other specialties, dermatology residencies are intensive and comprehensive. 

Residents gain expertise in diagnosing and treating various skin disorders, including dermatological surgery and cosmetic procedures. Dermatologists often work in outpatient settings, but their training also covers inpatient consultations and procedures. 


Radiology residencies typically span five years after completing medical school. This time frame allows residents to develop a deep understanding of various imaging modalities, including X-rays, CT scans, MRIs, and nuclear medicine.

Internal Medicine

The internal medicine residency program lasts for three years. During this time, residents gain a broad and comprehensive understanding of various medical conditions affecting adults, including chronic diseases, infectious diseases, and complex medical cases.

General Surgery

General surgery residents spend five years. The first two years of residency aim at developing foundational skills and experiences in the spectrum of general surgery. In subsequent years, you will receive further training in specific medical areas.

This experience covers diagnostic workup, surgical techniques, preoperative preparation, intraoperative judgment, postoperative management, and follow-up care. Also, you get the opportunity to observe several clinical problems and different patient's responses.


As an aspiring cardiologist, you must undertake a three-year cardiologist residency. Because cardiology is a subspecialty of internal medicine, your residency program is under them. Residency years will teach you to evaluate and manage several medical conditions. Later on, you will move on to specialize in the cardiovascular system.

Family Medicine

A family medicine residency runs for four years. The program initially covers inpatient and outpatient rotations. This exposes residents to the in-depth care provided in the hospital and continuity of care in the patient's home clinic.


Urology residencies typically span five years following medical school. During this time, residents receive extensive training in diagnosing and treating a wide range of urological conditions, including urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and prostate issues.

The five-year urology residency program ensures these physicians are highly proficient in providing comprehensive urological care, from medical management to surgical interventions, and they are well equipped to address the diverse needs of patients in this field.


Pediatric residency training typically spans three to four years, with the initial three years focusing on basic training. During this foundational period, pediatric residents acquire essential skills in diagnosing and managing a wide range of childhood illnesses and conditions. 

The fourth year of pediatric residency provides an opportunity for residents to further specialize in their chosen area of expertise. This allows pediatricians to deepen their knowledge and skills in a specific area of pediatric care, ensuring they can provide the highest level of specialized care to young patients.


As an aspiring ophthalmologist, your residency spans four years, comprising one intern year and three specialized ophthalmology-focused years. Throughout the residency, you'll gain valuable clinical and surgical experience in various settings, including outpatient and inpatient care. 

Your training will encompass a wide range of patient care responsibilities, as well as participation in seminars, research projects, and conferences aimed at advancing your knowledge and expertise in the field.

Plastic Surgery

Plastic surgery residencies are notably longer than many other specialties, spanning six to seven years. This duration is necessary because plastic surgeons require extensive training in both cosmetic and reconstructive procedures, including surgeries on the face, body, and extremities. 

Plastic surgeons must develop intricate surgical skills, knowledge of tissue grafting and microsurgery, and an understanding of aesthetic principles. 

Orthopedic Surgery

An orthopedic surgery residency typically takes five years to complete. During this time, you will learn to diagnose and treat musculoskeletal conditions, including bone and joint disorders, injuries, and various orthopedic surgical techniques. 

The training includes clinical rotations and surgical experiences to prepare residents for a career in orthopedic surgery. 

Emergency Medicine

Emergency medicine residencies typically span three to four years after medical school. During this period, residents gain extensive experience in managing a wide range of medical emergencies, including trauma, cardiac events, respiratory distress, and critical care scenarios. 


To become an oncologist, you’ll have to complete a three to four-year residency program. These residencies provide comprehensive training in the various aspects of cancer care, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapies.

Interventional Radiology

During the six-year residency, aspiring interventional radiologists acquire in-depth knowledge of medical imaging techniques, including ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI, and gain proficiency in using these technologies to guide minimally invasive procedures.

Vascular Surgery

Vascular surgery residencies typically last five to seven years. Residents learn to diagnose and treat diseases of the blood vessels, including arteries and veins, and perform surgical procedures to address these conditions.


After completing the three-year internal medicine residency, a gastroenterology fellowship adds two to three years. The training involves diagnosing and treating digestive system disorders and performing endoscopic procedures.


Dental residency programs typically range from one to six years in length. The duration varies depending on the chosen dental specialty. For example, a general dentistry residency is typically one year, while advanced specialties like oral surgery or orthodontics may require three to six years of training. 

Diagnostic Radiology

A diagnostic radiology residency typically takes four to five years to complete. Residents learn to interpret medical images, such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs, and assist in diagnosing a wide range of medical conditions.


Endocrinology is a subspecialty of internal medicine. After completing a general three-year internal medicine residency, an endocrinology fellowship takes two to three years to complete. During this period, you learn to diagnose and treat hormonal disorders.

Oral Surgery

Oral surgery residencies typically last four to six years, depending on the program and the specific focus of the training. 

During this period, residents receive comprehensive education and clinical experience in various aspects of oral and maxillofacial surgery, including dental extractions, facial trauma management, and complex surgical procedures.


Otolaryngology residencies typically take five years to complete. During this time, residents learn how to diagnose and surgically treat disorders related to the head and neck, including conditions affecting the ear, nose, throat, and related structures.


Gynecology is typically pursued as a subspecialty within the field of obstetrics and gynecology. A standard OB/GYN residency lasts four years, and after completing this residency, physicians have the option to pursue further specialization in various gynecological subspecialties.

Cardiac Surgery

Cardiac surgery residencies can vary but often take six to eight years. As a resident, you will learn how to perform surgical procedures on the heart and blood vessels.

Laboratory Medicine

Laboratory medicine residencies typically last for three to four years, depending on the program and specific requirements. Residents gain expertise in clinical laboratory testing, diagnostics, and quality assurance processes, preparing them for careers in medical laboratories, pathology, and related fields.

Tips on How to Craft a Medical Residency Application

To get into the hospital of your choice, you need a well-crafted application to stand out in the competitive landscape. Here are some tips to help you increase your chances of matching your desired residency program.

Start Early

The residency application process can be lengthy and demanding. Prepare well to ensure ample research, document gathering, and editing time. Ideally, you can start preparing as early as your third or fourth year in medical school.

Start by researching different programs. Understand what each residency program offers and what they're looking for in candidates. Draft out your preferences, considering your location, compensation, available spaces, length of specialized training, living expenses, and patient volume. 

The documents you need depend on the organization you're applying to. Most residency programs list their criteria for applicants on their website. In general, these are the documents you should have.

  • Personal statement: should convey your passion for medicine, your chosen specialty, and why you are an ideal candidate for the program
  • Resume or CV: should highlight your academic achievements, publications, clinical experiences, research endeavors, and extracurricular activities
  • Medical Student Performance Evaluation: should point out your academic performance and extracurricular activities during medical school
  • Licensing exam transcript: should showcase a competitive score that demonstrates your proficiency and suitability for the chosen specialty
  • Medical school transcripts: should provide a detailed record of your academic performance, including coursework, grades, and honors
  • Letters of recommendation: should emphasize your clinical competence, teamwork, communication skills, and overall suitability for a residency program

Many residencies list their website requirements, such as medical school graduation year, number of allowed attempts on the USMLE, or types of visas accepted. Also, look out for license requirements for specific states. Ensure you confirm your eligibility before applying to residency programs.

Proofread and Edit Your Application 

Attention to detail is crucial. Carefully proofread your application for grammar, spelling, and formatting errors. Also, stay abreast of the application time to prevent you from missing deadlines. Application timelines are different based on the program and hospital. 

Prepare for Interviews

If you're invited for interviews, be prepared to discuss your application, experiences, and goals. Practice interviewing to convey your passion and suitability for the program.

Feel free to seek advice from mentors, advisors, or residents who have successfully navigated the residency application process. Their insights can be invaluable.

Lastly, maintain a positive attitude throughout the application process. The residency matching process can be unpredictable. So, consider reaching out to a team of experts who can help you prepare for various outcomes and maximize your chances of success. You can have a backup plan if you don't match your top choice.

FAQs: How Long Is Residency?

In this section, we will address other questions about the residency experience. Whether you're a medical student aiming for residency or a resident seeking guidance, read each answer to understand residency better.

1. How Long Is Medical Residency? 

On average, medical residencies in the United States typically last between three years for specialties like family medicine and eight years for cardiothoracic surgery. The duration of medical residency programs can vary widely depending on your medical specialty and location.

2. Are Medical Residencies Paid?

Yes, medical residencies are typically paid positions. Residents receive a stipend or reimbursement for their work during the residency training program. Your income will vary depending on specialty and location.

3. What Is the Difference Between a Doctor and a Resident?

A doctor who has completed residency is fully licensed and board-certified in their medical specialty, allowing them to practice medicine autonomously. In contrast, a resident doctor has finished medical school but has not completed residency, requiring supervision while practicing medicine.

4. What Is the Shortest Residency Program?

The shortest residency programs range between three to four years. Some of them are family medicine (three years), internal medicine (three years), pediatrics (three years), and emergency medicine (three to four years)

5. How Many Hours Do Medical Residents Work?

The number of work hours varies with the year they are in, the specialty, and the hospital policies. According to ACGME regulations, residents should work 80 hours a week over four weeks. They can have a maximum shift length of 24 hours for first-year residents (interns) with additional time for transitions of care. 

Upper-level residents have a maximum shift of 24 hours, with an additional 4 hours for educational activities. Some specialties, such as surgical and emergency medicine, may approach or exceed their 80-hour limit.

6. What Is the Longest Residency Length?

The longest residency periods are more than five years. Some of the longest residency periods are orthopedic surgery (five years), plastic surgery (six years), and neurosurgery (seven years).

Final Thoughts

Medical residency is a postgraduate training that you must go through before becoming fully licensed and certified. In this article, we’ve answered the question: “how long is residency?”

Residency is an immersive and specialized training experience that immerses you in real, challenging hospital settings, equipping you with essential skills, experience, and confidence. 

It's worth noting that the medical residency application process is highly competitive, but with thorough preparation, a customized application, and dedicated effort, you can significantly improve your chances of securing a position in your preferred program. Best of luck with your preparations!

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